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The Glossary

Glossary of Nonwoven Terms

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A SURFACE

The exposed layer in an automotive headliner.

Categories: Uncategorized
ABSORPTION

The ability of a fabric to take in moisture – a very important property, which affects many other characteristics such as skin comfort, static build–up, shrinkage, water repellency and wrinkle recovery.

References for this information:

Clothing Biosensory Engineering, 2006, Pages 218-234 Advanced in Knitting Technology, 2011, Pages 287-308 Woven Terry Fabrics, 2017, Pages 19-28 High-Performance Apparel, 2018, Pages 7-32

Categories: Gases, Liquids, Miscellaneous
ADHESION

The bonding strength of one material to another.

Categories: Uncategorized
ADSORPTION

The process by which a gas or liquid is taken up by the surface of a material. An adsorbent nonwoven wicks and holds the gas or liquid between the fibers.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Gases, Liquids, Miscellaneous
AEROSOL

Small particles, solid, semi-solid or liquid, suspended in the air. The diameter of the particles may vary from 100 microns down to 0.02 microns Examples are dust, smoke and fog.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Additive, Sprays
AIR PERMEABILIY(AIRPERM)

The rate at which air flows through a fabric. Also referred to as BREATHABILITY. Often measured in cfm (cubic feet per minute per square foot) or cm3/sec/cm2.

References for this information:

Nanotechnology in Textiles, 2019, Pages 311-353 Solid-Liquid Filtration, 2015, Pages 1-20 Handbook of Nonwoven Filter Media, 2007, Pages 245-290

Categories: Miscellaneous, Nonwovens
AIRLAYING, AIRLAIDPROCESS

A nonwoven web forming process that disperses fibers into a fast-moving air stream and condenses them onto a moving screen by means of pressure or vacuum.

Categories: Nonwovens
AMORPHOUS

Not crystalline. A random rather than a regular arrangement of chains of molecules within regions of a polymer or fiber.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
ANTIOXIDANT

An additive that retards the deterioration of a material’s functional and aesthetic properties by reaction with the oxygen in the air.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Additive, Coatings, Sprays
ANTISTAT

An additive that reduces the accumulation or assists the dissipation of electrical charges that arise during the processing of fibers, fabrics and films and during the use of such materials.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Additive
ARAMIDFIBER

A synthetic fiber that is part of the NYLON (POLYAMIDE) family.  Aramid is short for Aromatic Polyamide.  META-ARAMIDS (NOMEX) exhibit very high heat resistance and PARA-ARAMIDS (KEVLAR) exhibit very high strength as well as high heat resistance.  Other brand names include TWARON, TECHNORA, and HERACRON.

References for this information:

Handbook of Nonwoven Filter Media, 2007, Pages 103-194 Inda

Categories: Fibers, Nonwovens
ASHRAE

The acronym for American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers. Most air and liquid filter manufacturers in the United States use the ASHRAE test methods.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Liquids, Miscellaneous, Organizations
ASTM

The acronym for American Society for Testing and Materials International. ASTM standards are used for a variety of nonwoven testing and specifications.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Miscellaneous, Nonwovens, Organizations
ATTENUATION

Drawing or pulling of molten polymer into a much-reduced diameter filament or fiber. This can add strength to the filament or fiber by making it less amorphous and more crystalline in structure.

References for this information:

https://www.edana.org/glossary

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
B SURFACE

The middle layer in an automotive headliner. It can be made from foam or fiber glass

Categories: Uncategorized
BACK COATING

An adhesive type substance applied to the back side of a fabric for the purpose of locking pile yarn into a carpet backing, or bonding a secondary backing to the primary backing, increasing fabric body or stiffness, or imparting flame retardancy to the fabric.

References for this information:

Applications of Nonwovens in Technical Textiles, 2010, Pages 65-84 Inda

Categories: Coatings
BACKING

A web, nonwoven or other material that supports and reinforces the back of a product such as carpeting or wallpaper. Backings provide dimensional stability and enhance the performance of the face fabric.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous, Nonwovens
BACKING CLOTH

The material on the inner side of a composite

Categories: Uncategorized
BALE

A compressed and bound package of fibers – a common shipping package for fibers.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
BASIS WEIGHT

The mass of a unit area of fabric. Examples: grams per square meter – ounces per square yard. Basis Weight is mass per square area and is not the same a DENSITY, which is mass per cubic volume.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
BATCH

A number or an amount of items forming a group i.e. a batch (amount) of fibers.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
BATT, BATTING

A soft bulky assembly of fibers, usually carded. A carded web is sometimes referred to as a batt.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
BICOMPONENT FIBERS

Fibers consisting of two polymeric compounds arranged in a core-sheath (concentric or eccentric) or a side by side or a matrix or ‘islands in the sea’ configuration, chosen to ensure one component softens at a sufficiently lower temperature than the other in order to maintain the structural integrity or to create specific characteristics.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
BINDER

An adhesive substance, generally a high polymer in a solid form (powder, film, fiber) or as a foam, or in a liquid form (emulsion, dispersion, solution) used for bonding the constituent elements of a web or enhancing their adhesion, in order to provide the nonwoven fabric cohesion, integrity and/or strength and additional properties.

Categories: Additive, Fibers
BINDER FIBERS

Generally, thermoplastic fibers used as thermal bonding fibers in conjunction with other fibers with a higher softening point or non-melting fibers. Some binder fibers that may not be thermoplastic can be activated by solvent (e.g. water).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
BIODEGRADABLE

The ability of a substance to be broken down by bacteria so that it can be consumed by the environment.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous, Uncategorized
BLEND

A combination of two or more fiber types in making fabrics.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
BONDING

Conversion of a fibrous web into a nonwoven by chemical (adhesive/solvent) means or by physical (mechanical or thermal) means. The bonding may be distributed all over (through or area bonding) or restricted to predetermined, discrete sites (point or print bonding).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Nonwovens
BREATHABILITY

See AIR PERMEABILITY.

References for this information:

Nanotechnology in Textiles, 2019, Pages 311-353 Solid-Liquid Filtration, 2015, Pages 1-20 Handbook of Nonwoven Filter Media, 2007, Pages 245-290

Categories: Miscellaneous, Nonwovens
BSR REDUCTION

Buzz, squeak and rattle test. An acoustic test for determining fit and wear of automotive components.

Categories: Uncategorized
C SURFACE

The inner layer of an automotive headliner that moves against the inner metal of a car or truck.

Categories: Uncategorized
CALENDER

A machine used to bond fibers of a web or sheets of fabric or film to each other or to create surface features on these sheets. It consists of two or more heavy cylinders that impart heat and pressure to the sheets that are drawn between them. The rollers can be mirror smooth, embossed with a pattern, or porous.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Machinery
CALENDER BONDING

A process for thermally bonding webs by passing them through the nip of a pair of rolls, one or both of which are heated. Plain or patterned rolls may be employed (see POINT BONDING). Alternatively, a blanket calendar may be used.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
CALENDERING

A mechanical finishing process used to laminate or to produce special surface features such as high luster, glazing and embossed patterns.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
CARD

A machine designed to separate fibers and remove impurities; align and deliver them to be laid down as a web or to be further separated and fed to an airlaid process. The fibers in the web are aligned with each other predominantly in the same direction. The machine consists of a series of rolls or a drum that are covered with many projecting wires or metal teeth. These wire-clothed rolls or drums are called cards.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Machinery
CARDED NONWOVEN

Made from a variety of fibers, including rayon and polyester, with ranging fiber lengths. This is done to provide fabric integrity.

References for this information:

Applications of Nonwovens in Technical Textiles, 2010, Pages 103-119 Inda Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
CARDING

A process for making fibrous webs in which the fibers are aligned essentially parallel to each other in the direction in which the machine produces the web (machine direction).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
CARTRIDGE FILTER

Pleated filter Media wrapped around an inside core. The performance is affected by the number of pleats perinch or centimeter, the type of material used and the size of the openings of the core in order to provide specific air or liquid performance

References for this information:

Handbook of Filter Media, 2002, Pages 365-410

Categories: Uncategorized
CELLULOSIC FIBERS

Made from plants that produce fibrous products based on polymers of the cellulose molecule. Cotton plants produce separate cellulose fibers, whereas wood pulp is made by mechanically and/or chemically separating wood fibers. Other sources of cellulose are fibers such as flax manila, ramie and jute. Rayon is made by dissolving wood pulp in a solution and extruding that solution through spinnerets into a chemical bath that regenerates the fibers.

References for this information:

Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology, 2009, Pages156-182

Categories: Fibers
CFM

Cubic Feet per Minute. Technically, Cubic Feet per Minute per Square Foot. Unit of measure for quantifying airflow through a filter media.

Categories: Measurement
CHEMICAL BONDING

A method of bonding webs of fibers by chemical agents that may include adhesives and solvents. The process may entail one or more of the following methods: impregnation, spraying, printing and foam application. NOTE: chemical bonding using chemical agents occurs only in a reactive system, e.g. a crosslinkable dispersion. Normal polymer bonding as it happens with non-reactive polymer binders (e.g. fibers, adhesives or lattices) is a physical process.

References for this information:

Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology, 2009, Pages156-182

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
CLOUDY WEB

An uneven or irregular web that gives a cloud-like appearance. Also referred to as WINDOWS.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
COATING

Application of a liquid or powder to one or both surfaces of a fabric, which is followed by drying and winding.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Coatings, Liquids
COFORM

Application of a liquid or powder to one or both surfaces of a fabric, which is followed by drying and winding.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Miscellaneous, Nonwovens
COHESION

The resistance of like materials to be separated from one another. Examples are: The tendency of fibers to adhere to each other during processing, the resistance of a web to being pulled apart, and the resistance of a component of a laminate to being torn apart when the adhesive interface in the laminate is being stressed.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
COMBING

In carding, the part of the process that removes neps and straightens the fibers.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
COMPOSITE MATERIAL

Combination of two or more distinct materials having a recognizable interface between them.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
CONFORMABILITY

The ability to meet certain quality standards.

Categories: Uncategorized
CONTINUOUS FILAMENT

A fiber of unending length, usually made by extruding a plastic or polymer solution through a hole in a die called a spinneret.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
CONVERTER

An organization that manufactures finished products from fabrics supplied in rolls; or provides intermediate processing steps such as slitting, dyeing and printing.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous, Organizations
COPOLYMER

A polymer chain made up of monomeric units from more than one monomer, e.g. vinyl acetate / ethylene polymers.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
CORONA CHARGE

An electrostatic charge applied to some filter media to increase the initial filtration properties of the filter.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Miscellaneous
COTTON FIBER

A unicellular, natural fiber composed of an almost pure cellulose. As taken from plants, the fiber is found in lengths of 8 mm – 50 mm. For marketing, the fibers are graded and classified for length, strength and color.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers
COVER, COVERAGE

The degree to which a fabric hides an underlying structure.

Categories: Uncategorized
COVERSTOCK

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
CREPE

A quality in a fabric imparted by wrinkling or embossing to give a crimped surface and greater fabric bulk.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
CRIMP

The waviness of a fiber. Crimp amplitude is the height of the wave with reference to the straight uncrimped fiber.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
CRIMP FREQUENCY OR LEVEL

The number of crimps per unit of length.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
CROSS DIRECTION, CROSS MACHINE DIRECTION (CD, CMD, XMD)

The width direction, within the plane of the fabric, that is perpendicular to the direction in which the fabric is being produced by the machine.

Categories: Uncategorized
CROSS-LAID, CROSS LAPPED

A web of fibers, formed by cross-laying or cross-lapping. A variable percentage of the fibers are oriented in both the MD and CD directions, providing more ISOTROPIC physical properties than a PARALLEL-LAID web.

Categories: Fibers
CROSS-SECTION

The outline profile of a cut end of a fiber when it is cut perpendicular to its long axis. These profiles can be round, oval, irregular or complex shapes depending on the shape of the die used to extrude the synthetic fiber; or for a natural fiber, depending on its growth pattern.

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
CROSSLAPPER

A machine used to fold or layer fiber webs across their widths. The crosslapper provides webs with both machine direction and cross direction fiber orientation, can change web width, or web weight.

References for this information:

https://www.edana.org/glossary

Categories: Machinery
CRYSTALLINE

Orderly arrangement of molecules and polymer chains in a fiber or plastic.

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
CURING

A process by which resins, binders or plastics are set into or onto fabrics, usually by heating, to cause them to stay in place. The setting may occur by removing solvent or by crosslinking so as to make them insoluble.

References for this information:

Advanced Adhesives in Electronics, 2011, Pages 157-198 https://www.inda.org/about-nonwovens/nonwovens-glossary-of-terms/ https://www.edana.org/glossary

Categories: Uncategorized
DACRON

A brand name for POLYESTER.

Categories: Nonwovens
DECITEX (Dtex)

Weight in grams of 10,000 meters of a fiber. It is one-tenth of a tex (see Tex). Prefixes such as kilo and deci are used when the numbers become too large or too small to express fineness. It measures the coarseness of a fiber.

References for this information:

Woven Textiles: Principles, Technologies, and Applications, 2012, Pages 3-34 https://www.inda.org/about-nonwovens/nonwovens-glossary-of-terms/ https://www.edana.org/glossary

Categories: Measurement
DELAMINATION

Tendency of a fabric to be pulled apart (layer separation) by normal surface forces or shear tensions.

Categories: Uncategorized
DENIER

The measure of a mass per unit length of a fiber. Denier is numerically equal to the mass in grams of 9000 meters of material. Low numbers indicate fine fiber sizes and high numbers indicate coarse fibers.

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
DENSITY

Mass per unit volume, i.e. grams/cubic centimeter. Density is different that BASIS WEIGHT, which is mass per square area, not cubic volume.

References for this information:

https://www.edana.org/glossary

Categories: Uncategorized
DEPTH FILTER

A filter medium which is thick and captures particles within the media. See also, SURFACE FILTER.

Categories: Miscellaneous
DIATOMACEOUS EARTH

A filter media made from diatoms, which are fossils that collect at the bottom of sea beds in prehistoric seas. Also known as “kieselguhr,” the material is characterized by pores and cavities capable of capturing and retaining contaminants.

Categories: Miscellaneous
DIE

A system to produce a thin filament of molten polymer in spunlaid and melt blown technology. A small annular orifice for spinning man-made fibers.

References for this information:

https://www.edana.org/glossary

Categories: Miscellaneous
DIFFUSION

The movement of molecules or ions through a solution or material in response to differential concentrations or repulsive or attractive forces.

Categories: Uncategorized
DIMENSIONAL STABILITY

Categories: Miscellaneous
DIPPING

Immersion of a textile in a finishing liquid (dip) such as dye or binder softener to improve its adhesion or water repellent properties.

Categories: Miscellaneous
DOFF

1. (verb) The term used for removing a finished fabric from the machine: Doff the roll, or doffing the roll. 2. (noun) In some regions, the term also refers to the roll of finished material removed from the machine.

Categories: Uncategorized
DOFFER

The last cylinder of a card from which the sheet of fibers that has been formed is removed by a comb (doffer comb or roll).

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
DOOR PANELS

The constructed inner door piece of an automotive.

Categories: Uncategorized
DOP

Dioctylphthalate (diethyhexyphospate) is a viscous liquid that is heated into an aerosol in the critical particle range to challenge a filter. The aerosol’s presence upstream of the filter and downstream are measured to determine the media’s efficiency. DOP is used to measure HEPA and ULPA media performance.

Categories: Miscellaneous, Sprays
DRAPE

The ability of a fabric to fold on itself and to conform to the shape of the article it covers.

References for this information:

Smart Textiles In Situ Monitoring of Composites, 2019,Pages 217-293

Categories: Miscellaneous
DRAWING

A process of stretching a filament after it has been formed so as to reduce its diameter. At the same time, the molecules of the filament are oriented, thereby making it stronger. The ratio of the final length to the initial length is called the draw ratio.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
DRYFORMING (DRYLAYING)

A process for making a nonwoven web from dry fiber. These terms apply to the formation of carded webs, as well as to the air laying formation of random webs.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Nonwovens
DRYLAID

Various fibers bonded together using a liquid emulsion that are then dried.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
DRYLAID NONWOVEN

Carded fibers bonded together using either heat or chemicals.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
EFFICIENCY

The ability of a filter device or media to remove particulate of a certain size from a liquid or gaseous fluid by measuring the concentration of the particles upstream and downstream of the device or media.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
ELASTICITY

The ability of a strained material to recover its original size and shape immediately after removal of the stress that causes deformation.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
ELASTOMERS

Polymers inducing the qualities of stretch and recovery.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE

Electrostatic charge: An electrostatic charge put on a non-woven web to allow it to attract a higher volume of particles.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
ELONGATION

Measured by determining the percentage a material will stretch in the machine and cross directions of the fabric while under specific weight loads depending on the testing method used.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
ELONGATION BREAK

The point at which the last component of the stretched material breaks.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
EMBOSSING

A process whereby a pattern is pressed into a film or fabric, usually by passing the material between rolls with little clearance and where one or both rolls have a raised design. At least one of the rolls is usually heated.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
EMULSION

A suspension of finely divided liquid droplets within another liquid (see DISPERSION).

Categories: Uncategorized
ENTANGLEMENT

A method of forming a fabric by wrapping or knotting fibers in a web about each other by mechanical means, or by use of jets of pressurized air or water, so as to bond the fibers (see MECHANICAL BONDING).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
EXTRUSION

A process by which a heated polymer is forced through an orifice to form a molten stream that is cooled to form a fiber. Examples of this process are Polypropylene and Polyester. Alternatively, a solution of polymer can be forced through an orifice into a solvent that causes the fiber to solidify. Examples are Kevlar and rayon.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
FABRIC

A sheet structure made from fibers, filaments or yarns.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
FACE FABRIC, FACING

A material that serves as the outermost layer of a composite and is exposed and visible.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
FANCY

In carding, prepares the fibers for transfer from the main cylinder to the doffer.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
FANCY STRIPPER

Cleans the fancy.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
FEED ROLLS

Top and bottom rolls in carding that receive the fibers from the opening and blending stages of the plant.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
FELT

A sheet of matted fibers, bonded together by NEEDLEPUNCH, SPUNLACE, and/or a chemical process, and the application of moisture, heat, and pressure (see also NEEDLEFELT). In some regions felt and NONWOVEN are used interchangeably, though there are many other types of nonwovens.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
FIBER

The basic threadlike structure from which nonwovens, yarns and textiles are made. It differs from a particle by having a length at least 100 times its width. NATURAL FIBERS are either of animal (wool, silk), vegetable (cotton, flax, jute) or mineral (asbestos) origin. MAN-MADE FIBERS may be either polymers synthesized from chemical compounds (polyester, polypropylene, nylon, acrylic, etc.) modified natural polymers (rayon, acetate) or mineral (glass).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
FIBER DISTRIBUTION

In a web, the orientation (random or parallel) of fibers and the uniformity of their arrangement.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
FIBER FILL

Low density fiber constructions, used as filling and cushioning, for products like pillows, bras and quilts.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
FIBERGLASS

(See GLASS FIBER)

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
FIBRID

A fiber having a lower melting point than the matrix fiber which can ultimately be melted to act as a local binder/enforcement system.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
FIBRILLATE

To break up a plastic sheet into a fibrous web, or to break up fibers into smaller fibers.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
FILAMENT

A fiber of indefinite length (see CONTINUOUS FILAMENT).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
FILLER

A non-fibrous additive used in a fiber, binder or a film, to increase weight, replace more expensive polymer, or to change luster, or opacity etc.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
FILTER FABRIC

A material used to separate particles from their suspension in air or liquids.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
FILTER MEDIA

Material that makes up a filter element. Media can be made of a variety of materials, fabric, metal, sand, fiber, ceramics, etc.

Categories: Miscellaneous
FINISH

Substance added to fibers and webs in a posttreatment, to change their properties. Examples are spin finishes (lubricants) and flame retardants.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
FINISHING

Process usually carried out after a web has been formed and bonded. Examples are embossing, creping, softening, printing and dyeing.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
FLAME RESISTANCE

The ability to burn slowly or to self-extinguish after the ignition source is removed.

Categories: Uncategorized
FLAME RETARDANCY

The ability of a material to resist ignition and the propagation of a flame.

References for this information:

Handbook of Fire Resistant Textiles, 2013, Pages 322-348

Categories: Uncategorized
FLASH SPINNING

Modified spinlaying (spunlaid) method in which a solution of a polymer is extruded under conditions where, on emerging from the spinneret, solvent evaporation occurs so rapidly that the individual filaments are disrupted into a highly fibrillar form. These fibers are then deposited on a moving screen to form a web.

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
FLASHSPUN

A web of fibers produced according to the flash spinning method.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers
FLASHSPUN NONWOVEN

Web of fibers produced by the flash spinning method and bonded by one or more techniques to provide fabric integrity and variations in surface appearance.

Categories: Nonwovens
FLOCKING

Short fibers, cut from natural or synthetic fibers, are spread onto a fabric surface coated with adhesive; the fabric is then cured. The flock fiber spreading may be carried out mechanically, or with electrostatic forces. In the electrostatic process, electrical field forces help to align the flock fibers perpendicularly to the fabric surface.

References for this information:

Textiles and Fashion Materials, Design and Technology, 2015, Pages 337-354

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
FMVSS302

An automotive industry fire resistance standard. It is a horizontal burn test in which the material must either not ignite or self-extinguish within a certain time/distance.

Categories: Uncategorized
FOAM BONDING

A form of CHEMICAL BONDING. Binding fibers in a web to form a fabric by applying adhesive in the form of a foam whose bubbles break quickly after being applied.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
FOG

An aerosol of fine liquid or semi-solid droplets in a gas.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Chemicals, Sprays
FPM

Feet per minute.

Categories: Measurement
FUSING

Melting or bonding together of fibers or fabrics.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
FUZZ

Untangled fibers that protrude from a fabric’s surface or yarn.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers
GARNETTING

A process, similar to a carding, used to form a web from textile waste materials and other course, rough fibers. The machine is known as a Garnet.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Machinery, Miscellaneous
GAS

A fluid having extreme molecular mobility and no fixed dimensions. It diffuses and expands rapidly to occupy the space in which it is contained. It is the vapor or gaseous state of a substance.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Chemicals
GEOTEXTILE

A permeable fabric used in civil engineering construction projects such as paving, dams, embankments and drains for the purpose of soil reinforcement and stabilization, sedimentation control and erosion control, support and drainage.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
GLASSFIBERS, FIBERGLASS

Formed by extruding and attenuating molten glass. Glass fiber is brittle, which limits its use to a small number of markets. The fiber has the characteristics of withstanding relatively high temperatures of 280-300°C as well as poor heat conductivity and therefore major markets are heat insulation and high temperature filtration. Its characteristics of resistance to mildew, moisture and many oxidizing agents, solvents, alkalis and acids heightens its importance in those end-uses. The fiber also has good electrical resistance properties

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers
GRAB STRENGTH

A measure of the “effective strength” of a fabric; i.e., the strength of fibers in a specific width together with the additional strength contributed by adjacent fibers. Typically, grab strength is determined on a four-inch wide strip of fabric, with the tensile load applied at the midpoint of the fabric width through one-inch-wide jaw faces that are used to clamp the fabric.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
GRAVURE PRINTING/BONDING

In the context of nonwoven web bonding, this refers to a method of CHEMICALLY BONDING a web of fibers using the gravure method of printing. The gravure system uses a solid roller that is engraved with numerous small indentations. In the bonding process, the roller is partially immersed into an adhesive resin solution. As the roller turns, the excess solution is removed by a doctor blade, which leaves only the adhesive binder solution in the roller’s indentations. An unbonded web is then squeezed against the gravure roller (generally by a rubber roller) and the resin penetrates the web by osmosis. The web is then dried to remove the water and the binder remains.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
GREIGE FABRIC

Generally refers to woven or knitted fabrics off the loom prior to bleaching, dyeing or finishing treatment. The term is occasionally used to describe nonwovens before a finishing treatment.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
GSM

Grams per square meter.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Measurement
GSY

Grams per square yard.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Measurement
HAND

Qualities of a fabric perceived by touch, e.g. softness, firmness, stretch, resilience and drape.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
HEADLINERS

The composite under the inner roof of a car or truck.

Categories: Uncategorized
HEAT RESISTANCE

The ability to resist degradation at high temperatures.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
HEAT SETTING

Process by which fibers or fabrics are heated to a final crimp or molecular configuration so as to minimize changes in shape during use.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
HEAT SINK

A means of dissipating heat generated in a fabrication or coating application

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
HEAT STABILIZED

The ability of a fabric to resist shrinking or stretching under a mechanical or chemical stress. This property is obtained by prior heat treatment or with a chemical additive.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
HEPA FILTER

The acronym for High Efficiency Particulate Air. These filters are designed for filtering gases, normally air, to an efficiency of 99.97% by trapping particles down to 0.3 microns in the DOP test.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
HERACRON

A brand of ARAMID fiber produced by Kolon Industries.

Categories: Fibers
HIGHLOFT

General term for low density, thick or bulky fabrics, as compared to flat, paper-like fabrics.

References for this information:

Textiles and Fashion Materials, Design and Technology, 2015, Pages 307-335 Inda

Categories: Miscellaneous
HOMOPOLYMER

A polymer chain made up of monomeric units from one monomer only e.g. polyethylene.

Categories: Uncategorized
HOPPER

Structure used to contain material prior to being fed into the process i.e. polypropylene polymer chips prior to fiber spinning.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
HOT-MELT ADHESIVE

A solid material that melts quickly upon heating, then sets to a firm bond upon cooling. Used for almost instantaneous bonding.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
HVAC

The acronym applies to Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning systems that service air in an enclosed space, i.e., buildings, airplanes, cars, etc.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
HYDROENTANGLED NONWOVEN

A web bonded by hydroentanglement. It may additionally be bonded by other techniques.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
HYDROENTANGLING

Method of bonding a web of fibers or filaments by entangling them by using high-pressure water jets. A preformed web is entangled by means of high pressure, columnar water jets. As the jets penetrate the web, fiber segments are carried by the highly turbulent fluid and become entangled. In addition to bonding the web, which needs little or no additional binder, the process can also be used to impart a pattern to the web. Also referred to as SPUNLACING.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
HYDROPHOBIC

Lacking the affinity for being wetted by water or for absorbing water.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
HYDROPHYILIC

Having an affinity for being wetted by water or for absorbing water.

Categories: Uncategorized
HYDROSCOPIC, HYGROSCOPIC

The ability to absorb moisture from the atmosphere, a property that fibers have in varying degrees.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
IGNITION

The beginning of combustion.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
IMPINGEMENT

The process in which particles are removed from an airstream because of the inertia. As an air containing particle flows toward a filter fiber or other collecting surface, the particle does not follow the air streamlines because of its inertia. Instead it moves in a straight line, colliding with the filter fiber or surface to which it may become attached.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
INDUSTRIAL FABRICS

Materials for non-apparel and non-decorative uses. Examples are wipes, cable wrap and geotextiles.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
INITIAL MODULUS

The amount of deformation that is caused by a small stress. Materials with a high modulus, often called stiff or hard materials, deform or deflect very little in the presence of a stress. Materials with a low modulus, often called soft materials, deflect significantly.

References for this information:

Fabric Testing, 2008, Pages 90-124

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
INSTRON TENSILE TESTER

High precision electronic test equipment that measures the elongation or shortening of materials while forces such as pulling or compression are applied.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Machinery
INTERFACING (INTERLINING)

A nonwoven used in garments to provide weight, support and stiffness.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
INTERIOR TRIM

Decorative materials used to enhance passenger compartments.

Categories: Uncategorized
ISOTROPIC

Having the same physical properties in every direction in the plane of a fabric. It is related to the random distribution of the fibers.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
KEVLAR

A brand of ARAMID fiber produced by DuPont de Nemours, Inc.

Categories: Fibers
LAMINATE

A layered material containing two or more sheets bonded together with an adhesive, foam or thermoplastic resin.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
LICKERIN

The name for a roller at the beginning of the fiber feed system of a card line. It is a highspeed, saw-toothed wire roll that grabs the tufts of fibers fed into the system and deposits the partially opened fibers onto the main card cylinder.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
LOFT

The properties of bulk and resilience of a fabric or batt.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
MACHINE DIRECTION

The long direction within the plane of the fabric, that is the direction in which the fabric is being produced by the machine.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
MAIN CYLINDER

In carding, carries the fibers to the worker and stripper rolls.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
MANMADE FIBER

A class name for various types of fibers (and filaments) produced from fiber forming processes that may be: 1) Polymers synthesized from chemical compounds, e.g. acrylic, nylon, polyester, polyethylene, polyurethane, and polyvinyl fibers. 2) Modified or transformed natural polymers, e.g. alginic, and cellulose based fibers such as acetates and rayon. 3) Minerals, e.g. glass. The term manmade usually refers to all chemically produced fibers to distinguish them from the truly natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk, flax etc. Media, Medium: The materials used in filter production Melt spinning: a nonwoven manufacturing system involving direct conversion of a polymer into continuous filaments, integrated with the conversion of the filaments into a random laid nonwoven fabric.

References for this information:

Advances in Technical Nonwovens, 2016, Pages 133-153

Categories: Fibers
MASS

The quantity of matter a body or article contains.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Measurement
MAT

An array of fibers. A non-glossy finish to a web.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
MECHANICAL BONDING

A method of bonding a web of fibers by entangling them. This can be achieved by needling, stitching with fibers or by the use of high-pressure air or water jets.

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
MEDIA, MEDIUM

The process by which a gas or Synonymous with filter material. “Media” is the plural of “medium.” It is common today to use media as the singular and “medias” as the plural.

Categories: Uncategorized
MELT SPINNING

Production of filaments by melting and extruding polymer. It is a general term that encompasses both SPUNLAID ( SPUNBOND), MELTBLOWN, and FLASHSPUN nonwoven technologies, as well as filament yarns.

Categories: Uncategorized
MELTBLOWING

A method in which a molten polymer is extruded into a high velocity hot gas stream that converts it into fibers. The molten plastic is blown with hot, high velocity gas through the extruder dies. The filaments exiting from the extruder are attenuated during their formation until they break. The fibers break into short lengths rather than being continuous as those formed in spunlaid nonwovens. The short fibers thereby created are spread with cool quench air onto a moving belt called a forming fabric or onto a drum, where they bond to each other to form a opaque, fine fiber web.

Categories: Fibers
MELTBLOWN

The process by which a gas or liquid is taken up by the surface of a material. An adsorbent nonwoven wicks and holds the gas or liquid between the fibers.

Categories: Fibers
MELTBLOWN NONWOVEN

A meltblown web bonded by one or more techniques to provide fabric integrity.

Categories: Nonwovens
MEMBRANE FILTER

A permeable or semi-permeable membrane made of metal, polymer or other materials. These filters are capable of separating micron and sub-micron size particles from liquids and gases.

Categories: Miscellaneous
META-ARAMID

(See ARAMID)

Categories: Fibers
MICRON

One millionth of a meter. In the context of nonwovens, the micron unit of measure is generally used to describe the width of low denier fibers, such as melt blown filaments, and the nominal filtration efficiency of a filter media. The abbreviated form is μm.

Categories: Measurement
MIL

One thousandth of an inch. Used to measure the diameter of fibers and the thickness of films.

Categories: Measurement
MODULUS

The amount of force it takes to stretch a material a unit distance. It is a measure of elasticity. An extensible material or fiber has a low modulus. Stiff materials have a high modulus.

Categories: Uncategorized
MOISTURE REGAIN

Percentage of moisture in a fiber or fabric after it is equilibrated in a standard humidity.

Categories: Fibers
MOLDED TRUNK LINER

A composite of materials used to form the shape of a trunk.

Categories: Uncategorized
MONOFILAMENT

A single filament of fiber.

Categories: Fibers
MONOMER

Small molecules that can be linked together to produce polymers.

Categories: Uncategorized
NATURAL FIBERS

Fibers produced from plant based sources . ie cotton, cellulose,bamboo or corn.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
NECKING

Narrowing in width of a fabric, fiber or film when it is stretched.

Categories: Miscellaneous
NEEDLEFELT

A sheet of fibers (generally man-made) bonded by needling.

Categories: Fibers
NEEDLEPUNCHING

Made from various fibrous webs (usually carded webs) in which fibers are bonded together mechanically with the use of various needle configurations

References for this information:

Advances in Technical Nonwovens, 2016, Pages 273-310

Categories: Uncategorized
NEEDLING

The process of using needles to entangle fibers.

Categories: Uncategorized
NEPS

Small knots of fibers that were not separated before forming the web.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
NIP

The line of close contact between two cylinders between which a fabric or web passes.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
NOMEX

A brand of ARAMID fiber produced by DuPont de Nemours, Inc.

Categories: Fibers
NONWOVEN

A nonwoven is an engineered fibrous assembly, primarily planar, which has been given a designed level of structural integrity by physical and/or chemical means, excluding weaving, knitting or paper making. The fibers may be of natural or man-made origin. They may also be staple or continuous filaments.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
NYLON FIBER

A manufactured POLYAMIDE fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polyamide having recurring amide groups (-NH-CO-) as an integral part of the polymer chain. The two principal nylons are NYLON 66, which is polyhexamethylene diamine adipamide, and NYLON 6, which is polycaprolactam. These fibers can be produced using spun bonded or carded thermally bonded processes.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer

Categories: Uncategorized
OLEFIN FIEBR

A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units. Olefin fibers combine light weight with high strength and abrasion resistance (see also POLYETHYLENE and POLYPROPYLENE).

Categories: Fibers
OLEOPHILIC

Having an affinity for being wetted by oil or for absorbing oil.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
OLEOPHOBIC

Having an affinity for being wetted by oil or for absorbing oil.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
OPENING

A preliminary operation whereby staple fiber is separated sufficiently from its lap or baled condition so that it can be fed to the web forming part of the process.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
ORIENTATION

The alignment of fibers in a nonwoven material.

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
PADDING

Applying a liquid or paste to a web by passing it between squeeze rollers or by dipping it in a bath that carries the liquid or paste.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
PARA-ARAMID

(See ARAMID).

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers
PARALLEL LAYING

Forming a web in such a way that the fibers or filaments are laid in directions roughly parallel with the machine direction

References for this information:

Inda Edana
.

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
PARALLEL-LAID

A web where the fibers or filaments are laid roughly parallel to the machine direction. Parellel-laid webs exhibit higher strength and lower elongation in the MD vs. CD. See also CROSS-LAID.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
PARTICLE

A minute piece, part or portion of matter. It may be solid, semi-solid or liquid.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Measurement
PARTICLE COUNT

The quantity of particles in a given volume of fluid.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Measurement
PASCAL

A metric unit of pressure used in measuring an air filter’s performance.

Categories: Measurement
PEAK FORCE

A term used in tear testing. It is the force required to break the fiber bonds of a nonwoven or other samples of textile materials.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
PENETRATION

The flow of a liquid through pores, pinholes or holes resulting from imperfections or degradations of a fabric. In a filtration context, a measure, in percent, of particles of a given size that pass through a filter. If no particles pass through, then 100% were trapped. If 97% of particles are trapped, then penetration is 3%(100% – 97% = 3%) and the filter is 97% efficient. Penetration is used to measure the performance of high efficiency filters.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
PERMEABILITY

The ability to be penetrated by liquids or gases.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
PHYSICAL BONDING

A method of bonding fibrous webs by physical means: mechanical and thermal treatments.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
PICKER

A machine that separates staple fiber and forms it into a lap so that it can be fed to a card.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Machinery
PIGMENT

A colored or white substance that is insoluble and finely divided. Used to color or to deluster a fiber, fabric or plastic.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
PILLARS

Support structures on the sides of cars and trucks.

Categories: Uncategorized
PILLING

The tendency of fibers to come loose from a fabric surface and form balled or matted particles of fiber.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
PINSONIC BONDING

(See SONIC BONDING)

Categories: Uncategorized
PLASMA

A gas of positive ions and free electrons with approximately equal positive and negative charges.

Categories: Uncategorized
PLASTIC

A polymer with its additives. Also, the ability to be deformed and molded.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
PLASTICISER

Chemical that imparts flexibility, stretch and workability to a fabric or a plastic.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
PLIES

Layers of web, fabric or components of a laminate.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
POINT BONDING

Using heat and pressure in a discrete predetermined pattern to bind thermoplastic fibers to form a nonwoven fabric.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Nonwovens
POLYAMIDE

crystalline polymers typically produced by the condensation of a diacid and a diamine. The reason these fibers are so popular are because of their excellent mechanical properties, strength, fatigue resistance, and good adhesion to other materials such as rubber

References for this information:

Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers (Fourth Edition), 2017, Pages 187-227 Woven Textiles (Second Edition): Principles, Technologies and Applications, 2020, Pages 3-34

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
POLYETHYLENE FIBER

A manmade fiber made of polyethylene, usually in monofilament form although work has been done on continuous filament yarns and staple. It represents the highest tensile strength to mass ratio of any known fiber material Ethylene is polymerized at high pressures and the resulting polymer is melt spun and cold drawn. It may also be dry spun from xylene solution.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
POLYMER

A liquid or solid substance made by chemically linking macromolecules together in chains. High polymer denotes substances made from very long chains. Crosslinked polymer describes a substance in which there are molecular links between chains. Polymerization is the process for making these polymers.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
POLYPROPYLENE FIBER

represents the highest tensile strength to mass ratio of any known fiber material.

References for this information:

Structure and Properties of High-Performance Fibers, 2017,Pages 167-185

Categories: Fibers
PPM

An abbreviation of “parts per million.” It may be expressed by volume as ppm (v)or by mass as ppm (m).

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Measurement
PRECIPITATION

The action of a solid or liquid separating from a solution because of a chemical or physical process or change that has rendered it insoluble.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
PRESSURE DROP

The resistance to a fluid passing through a filter media at various flowrates.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
PRIMARY BACKING

The fabric into which a carpet is tufted.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
PRINT BONDING

A method of THERMALLY or CHEMICALLY BONDING a web in discrete regions of the web according to a predetermined pattern.

Categories: Uncategorized
PULP

Short cellulose fibers made from wood or cotton.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
QA

Acronym for Quality Assurance.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
QUALITY CONTROL, QUALITY ASSURANCE

Maintenance of standards in products or services through testing and procedures.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
QUENCH, QUENCHING

Cooling of filaments after extrusion by carefully controlled airflow, common in SPUNLAID/SPUNBOND manufacturing systems.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
RANDOM LAID

A web in which the fibers are laid in essentially random directions.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
RANDOM LAYING

Forming a web in such a way that the fibers or filaments are laid in essentially random directions.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
RANDOM-LAID NONWOVEN

A random laid web bonded by one or more techniques to provide fabric integrity. Random-Laid nonwovens generally have more ISOTROPIC physical properties than a PARALLEL-LAID nonwoven.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
RAYON FIBER

A regenerated cellulose fiber, which, although chemically similar to cotton, differs in that its molecular weight is about one-fifth and crystallinity about one-half that of cotton. under ambient conditions, the fiber absorbs about 14% moisture, and when soaked, can swell and absorb almost 70% by weight water. The fiber, however, becomes significantly weaker when wet. One of the major applications of the fiber, therefore, has been in externally used disposable absorbent products.

References for this information:

Biotextiles as Medical Implants, 2013, Pages 3-47

Categories: Fibers
RECONSTITUDED FIBER, REGENERATED FIBER

Fibers extruded from recovered and reprocessed waste polymer or blends of virgin and recovered waste polymer. Waste sources include recycled bottles, plastics, fiber, and other polymeric materials.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers
REINFORCEMENT

Provides stabilization or backing.

Categories: Uncategorized
REPELLENCY

The ability to resist wetting and staining by materials and soils.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
RESILIENCY

The ability of a fiber or fabric to spring back when crushed or wrinkled.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
RESIN

A solid or semisolid polymeric material.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
RESIN BONDING

A common method of web bonding by using chemical agents, which may include adhesive resins and solvents. Most common is resin bonding. Latex resins (adhesive) are applied to the web by a variety of methods: dipping the web into the latex and removing the excess, spraying, foaming or printing bonding. The resin is usually in a water-based solution, so this bonding process requires heat to remove the water to dry and set the binder into the fabric. See also CHEMICAL BONDING.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Chemicals
REWORKED FIBERS

Fibers that are sourced from several areas and recycled into needle-punched materials often destined for padding or insulation. This material is often referred to as “SHODDY.”

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers
ROLL GOODS

Fabric rolled up on a core after it has been produced. It is described in terms of weight and width of the roll and the length of the material on the roll.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
Saturation bonding

Binding fibers to form a fabric by saturating a web with an adhesive followed by drying and curing. A type of CHEMICAL BONDING

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
SCRIM

A textile with an open structure, which may be woven, knit or NONWOVEN, added to reinforce weaker materials in a COMPOSITE. Often, any nonwoven used as a backing or support fabric in composite a is called a scrim, regardless of how it is constructed.

Categories: Miscellaneous
SCROOP

The term refers to the characteristic crunch when loose, bleached cotton or rayon is hand squeezed. The sound is described as the crunch of walking on fresh fallen snow.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
SECONDARY BACKING

A layer of material laminated to the underside of a carpet to lock in carpet tufts, improve abrasion resistance, dimensional stability and strength.

References for this information:

Tufted Carpet: Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes and Processes, 2004, Pages 83-91 Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
SECONDS, SECOND QUALITY

Imperfect materials that have various flaws, such as weight lower or higher than specified, poor bonding, inconsistent web formation, poor tensile strength, etc.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
SHODDY FIBER

Shoddy generally refers to a bulky and/or lofty nonwoven made from reclaimed fibers. It is often multi-colored, and is often used for padding and sound insulation.

Categories: Fibers
SHORT FIBER

Staple fibers less than 15mm long. Typically used in the wetlaid process to make a fabric or as fillers in the absorbent cores of disposable hygiene products.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
SHRINKAGE

A reduction in length or width due to the effect of heat, moisture or chemical action.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
SLIT

To cut lengthwise.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
SLURRY

A water or solvent suspension. Examples are titanium dioxide mixed with water for addition to polymers or fibers mixed with water for wet forming.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
SMOULDERING

A slow flameless, smoking burning of a fabric.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
SOLUTION DYING

Adding pigments or insoluble dyes into the polymer melt or spinning solution prior to extruding a manmade fiber.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
SONIC BONDING, SONIC SEWING

Also known as ultrasonic bonding and pinsonic bonding.Sonic bonding uses high frequency sound to generate localized heat through vibration and thereby cause thermoplastic fibers to bond to one another. Specially designed “horns” that vibrate at ultra-sonic frequencies adjacent to an “anvil”, often a hardened, patterned roller, with a substrate or composite passing between the horn and the anvil. The energy created by the horn imparts the anvil’s pattern onto the substrate creating bond points that alter the aesthetics and physical characteristics of the material.

Categories: Uncategorized
SORBENT

Materials that recover oil through either absorption or adsorption. They play an important role in oil spill cleanup Polypropylene is the ideal material for marine oil-spill recovery due to its low density, low water uptake and excellent physical and chemical resistance.

References for this information:

Oil Spill and Technology, 2011, Pages 303-337 Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2003, Pages 780-783

Categories: Nonwovens
SOUND ABATEMENT

Materials used in reducing exterior noise in many products.

Categories: Uncategorized
SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Ratio of the mass of a material to the mass of an equal volume of water at 4oC. Most POLYMERS used in NONWOVENS have a specific gravity greater than 1 (they sink), however most olefins, such a POLYPROPYLENE, have a specific gravity of less than 1, so they float.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Measurement
SPIN DRAWING

Combines spinning and drawing in one operation in melt spun fibers.

Categories: Fibers
SPIN FINISH

A lubricant applied to fibers to reduce friction and static during processing into yarns and fabrics.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
SPIN LAYING

Method of forming a web in which a polymeric melt or solution is extruded through spinnerets to form filaments which are laid down on a moving screen.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
SPIN LINE

The system in a spunbond operation between the spinneret and the laydown belt a period.

Categories: Uncategorized
SPINNERET

A disc or screen containing many small holes through which molten polymer is extruded to form filaments.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Uncategorized
SPINNING

A process by which filaments or fabrics made from filaments, are generated directly from the molten polymer (see MELT SPINNING). A process by which fibers or filaments are drawn out and twisted together to produce a thread. Intrinsic angular motion.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
SPRAY BONDING

Binding fibers to form a fabric by spraying with an adhesive and then calendaring, through-air bonding or otherwise drying and curing the adhesive. A type of CHEMICAL BONDING.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
SPUNLACE

A term initially used by DuPont, but now universally used to denote a hydroentangled fabric. See HYDROENTANGLING. HYDROENTANGLING

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
SPUNLAID

A method of forming a web in which a polymeric melt or solution is extruded through spinnerets to form filaments which are laid down on a moving screen. Melt spun forming processes include spunbond, flash spinning and melt blown. The most common polymers used are polypropylene, polyester and polyethylene.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous, Nonwovens
SPUNLAID NONWOVEN

A spunlaid web bonded by one or more techniques to provide fabric integrity. Note: The hot filaments are still sufficiently molten to adhere to themselves and form bonds at their crossover points. The desired orientation of the filaments in the web is achieved by rotating the spinneret, by the application of electrical charges, by controlled air streams and by the speed of the forming wire. Additional bonding can be achieved by compaction or hot roll calendaring.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
STAPLE FIBERS

Natural fibers or cut lengths from manmade filaments.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
STICH BOND

A technique in which fibers in a web are bonded together by stitches sewn or knitted through A web to form a fabric.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fiber
STICH BOND NONWOVEN

A nonwoven produced by the stitch bonding process.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers
STIFFNESS

The ability of a fabric to resist bending. It is related to flexural rigidity i.e. to modulus of elasticity and thickness.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
STRAIN

Elongation, deformation or change in the dimensions of a body as the result of applied stress, expressed either as a relative unit change, or as a percentage.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Measurement
STRESS

An external force applied to a body or internal force per unit cross sectional area resulting from the external force.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Measurement
STRESS-STRAIN CURVE

Graph showing the amount of deformation obtained as a function of the force applied and the point at which rupture or breakage occurs.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
STRETCH

The ability of a fabric to grow in length when pulled.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
STRIKE THROUGH TIME

The time taken for a known volume of liquid (e.g. simulated urine) applied to the surface of a test piece of nonwoven coverstock, which is in contact with an underlying standard absorbent pad, to pass through the nonwoven. The ‘strike through time’ test is only designed to compare strike through times of nonwoven coverstocks. It is not intended to simulate in-use conditions of finished products.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Measurement
STRIPPERS

In carding, clothed rollers that clear the workers and return fiber to the main cylinder.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Nonwovens
SUBSTRATE

Fabric to which coatings or other fabrics are applied.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
SUPERABSORBENT POLYMER (SAP)

A material that can absorb many times the amount of liquid normally absorbed by cellulosic materials such as cellulose pulp cotton and rayon. Used mostly in granular form, but now available in fibrous form.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
SURFACE CHARGE

Electrical charge on a fiber or a fabric.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
SURFACE ENERGY

The work necessary to increase the surface area of a liquid. Normally expressed in dynes per square centimeter. Dynes are units of work.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
SURFACE FILTER

A thin filter material that retains contaminants on the surface. See also DEPTH FILTER.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
SURFACE TENSION

Forces acting between the molecules making up the surface of a liquid, causing the surface to contract to a minimum. Since it is a measure of the attraction of a liquid for itself, it can be related to its ability to mix with other liquids or to wet other surfaces.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
SURFACTANT

A chemical additive that changes the surface attraction between two liquids, or between a liquid and a solid, by changing the surface energy of one or both components.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Chemicals
SYNTHETIC FIBER

A man-made fiber, usually from a molten polymer or a polymer in solution.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
TACK, TACKIFIER, TACKY

Slightly sticky surface finish. Tacky finishes are often added to nonwovens to improve anti-slip characteristics, or to improve particle retention in filter medias.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
TEAR RESISTANCE, TEAR STRENGTH

The force required to begin or to continue a tear in a fabric under specific conditions. The tear resistance of a nonwoven fabric is usually measured by the Trapezoidal Tear Test.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
TENACITY

A measure of the strength of a fiber. The force exerted per unit linear density when tensile stress is applied. Expressed as Newton per tex. Newtons are units of force. Previously expressed as grams force per denier.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Manufacturing
TENSILE STRENGTH

1) In general, the strength shown by a specimen subjected to tension as distinct from shearing stress, bending or twisting momentum. 2) Specifically, the maximum tensile stress expressed in force per unit cross sectional area of the unstrained specimen, e.g. Newtons per square millimeter.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Manufacturing
TEX

A metric measure of the mass per unit length of a fiber. It is numerically equal to the mass in grams of one kilometer of the material. It is also equal to the denier divided by 9.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
TEXTURE

A term describing the surface effect of a fabric such as dull, lustrous, woolly, stiff, soft, fine, coarse, open, or close; the structural quality of a fabric.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
TEXTURING

A process for imparting crimp, crepe and bulk to fibers yarns and fabrics.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
THERMAL BONDING, THERMOBONDING

A method of bonding a web of fibers in which a heat or ultrasonic treatment, with or without pressure, is used to activate a heat-sensitive material, which may be in the form of homofil fibers, bicomponent fibers, or as all or part of the web. The bonding may be applied all over (through or area bonding) or restricted to predetermined discrete sites (point bonding).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
THERMOPLASTIC

Polymeric materials that have a melting temperature and can flow or be formed into desired shapes on the application of heat at or below the melting point.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
THERMOSET

Polymeric materials that become intractably hardened by exposure to heat and/or catalyst action.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
THICKNESS

The dimension of a sheet or lamina measured perpendicular to the plane of the sheet under a specific pressure.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
THREAD

A spun-out filament. A thin structure of twisted yarns.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Miscellaneous
THROUGH-AIR BONDING

A bonding system that that uses high temperature air to fuse the web’s fibers. There are two basic systems: blowing hot air through the web in a conveyor oven or passing heated air through the web on a rotating drum. Fabrics made from bicomponent fibers or blends of bicomponent and regular fiber are often bonded by through-air bonding systems. This method is sometimes referred to as air-through bonding.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers
TITATNIUM DIOXIDE

A natural chemical compound (TiO2) often used to pigment polymers in the spinning process to add whiteness.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Chemicals
TOLERANCE

The permitted variation in the measurement of specified property, such as weight, strength, color, etc., that is being observed in a test method.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Measurement
TORQUE

The moment of a system of forces tending to cause rotation.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Measurement
TOUGHNESS

Ability to absorb work. Commonly measured as the area under the stress/strain curve. The opposite of brittleness.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
TOW

A bundle of continuous filaments. The form of most manmade filaments before being cut into staple.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
TRICOMPONENT FIBER

A fiber that is made from three polymers that are physically or chemically different.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers
TUFTING

Make insertions of clumps of fibers into depressions in the base fabric to form a 3D structure with the tufts of fibers oriented in the vertical direction.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
ULTRASONIC BONDING

The use of high frequency sound to generate localized heat through vibration and thereby cause thermoplastic fibers to bond to one another. See also SONIC BONDING.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
Ultrasonically

Categories: Uncategorized
UNBONDED

A fiberfill material that has not had any form of bonding treatment.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers
UNDER-HOOD INSULATION

A composite that prevents engine heat from escaping the hood area of an automotive.

Categories: Uncategorized
UNIDIRECTIONAL

Performing best in only one direction; generally applied to nonwovens in which the fabric strength is highly oriented in the direction of web travel through the forming process.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
UNIDIRECTIONAL FABRIC

A fabric having strength mostly in one direction, generally the machine direction.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Miscellaneous
UNWIND, UNWINDER, UNWIND STAND

The name often given to the equipment from which a roll of fabric is unwound for further processing or converting.

Categories: Machinery
UV ABSORBERS

Various chemicals or polymers added to the product that absorb the ultraviolet light or otherwise make the material resistant to ultraviolet degradation.

Categories: Chemicals
UV DEGRADABLE

The ability of a substance to be broken down by the action of the ultraviolet part of the light spectrum.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Chemicals
UV RESISTANCE

The ability to retain strength or other properties upon exposure to ultraviolet light.

Categories: Chemicals
VAN DER WAALS FORCES

The forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules caused by the electric fields of the electrons (negative) and the nuclei (positive). The forces of molecular attraction explain why particles adhere to a filter’s fiber.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Measurement
VISCOSE FIBER

A manufactured fiber of cellulose obtained by the ‘viscose’ process using cellulose xanthate dissolved in a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide and extrusion of the viscose ‘dope’ into an acid precipitation bath. See also RAYON FIBER.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
WATER REPELLENCY

The ability to resist wetting by water.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
WEB

1) The wide film of fibers that is delivered from a card. 2) A similar product of other web forming equipment such as that formed by air or water deposition and used to make nonwoven fabrics. 3) A term loosely applied to lightweight nonwoven fabrics.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
WEB CONSOLIDATION

The process by which the fibers or fibrous materials are interlocked in order to provide the integrity or strength desired in the fabric structure.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
WEB FORMATION

The process by which individual fibers or fibrous materials are arranged in order to bring about the physical properties desired in the fabric structure.

References for this information:

Inda

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
WEIGHT

The force experienced by a body as a result of the earth’s gravitational force. Any similar force with which a body tends to a centre of attraction. The heaviness of a body regarded as a property of it. The force experienced by a body as a result of the earth’s gravitational force. Any similar force with which a body tends to a centre of attraction. The heaviness of a body regarded as a property of it.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
WELL COVERS

The composite covering the inside wheel wells of vehicles

Categories: Uncategorized
WET FORMING

Formation of a web by filtering an aqueous suspension of fibers onto a screen belt or on to a perforated drum.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
WET STRENGTH

The resistance of a fabric to being torn when it is wet. Usually compared to its strength when dry.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Measurement
WETLAID

A fiber web produced by the wetlaying technique.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
WETLAID NONWOVENS

Wetlaid web bonded by one or more techniques to provide fabric integrity.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Nonwovens
WETLAYING

Forming a web from an aqueous dispersion of fibers by applying modified paper making techniques.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
WICKING

Transport of liquid within an absorbent fabric, along the thickness of the fabric and within the plane of the fabric.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Uncategorized
WINDOW, WINDOWY

Inconsistent coverage of fibers in a nonwoven web. See also CLOUDY.

Categories: Fibers, Nonwovens
WOOD PULP

Cellulosic fibers used to make viscose rayon, paper and the absorbent cores of products such as diapers, sanitary towels and adult incontinence products.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
WORKERS

Rolls in the carding process that comb out and disperse the fiber bundles.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Machinery