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The Glossary

Glossary of Nonwoven Terms

For more extensive definitions and information, please see the INDA and EDANA glossaries, located at the end of this page.

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CALENDER

A machine used to bond fibers of a web or sheets of fabric or film to each other or to create surface features on these sheets. It consists of two or more heavy cylinders that impart heat and pressure to the sheets that are drawn between them. The rollers can be mirror smooth, embossed with a pattern, or porous.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Machinery
CARD

A machine designed to separate fibers and remove impurities; align and deliver them to be laid down as a web or to be further separated and fed to an airlaid process. The fibers in the web are aligned with each other predominantly in the same direction. The machine consists of a series of rolls or a drum that are covered with many projecting wires or metal teeth. These wire-clothed rolls or drums are called cards.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Machinery
CROSSLAPPER

A machine used to fold or layer fiber webs across their widths. The crosslapper provides webs with both machine direction and cross direction fiber orientation, can change web width, or web weight.

References for this information:

https://www.edana.org/glossary

Categories: Machinery
GARNETTING

A process, similar to a carding, used to form a web from textile waste materials and other course, rough fibers. The machine is known as a Garnet.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Machinery, Miscellaneous
INSTRON TENSILE TESTER

High precision electronic test equipment that measures the elongation or shortening of materials while forces such as pulling or compression are applied.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Machinery
PICKER

A machine that separates staple fiber and forms it into a lap so that it can be fed to a card.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Machinery
UNWIND, UNWINDER, UNWIND STAND

The name often given to the equipment from which a roll of fabric is unwound for further processing or converting.

Categories: Machinery
WORKERS

Rolls in the carding process that comb out and disperse the fiber bundles.

References for this information:

Edana

Categories: Fibers, Machinery