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The Glossary

Glossary of Nonwoven Terms

For more extensive definitions and information, please see the INDA and EDANA glossaries, located at the end of this page.

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ARAMIDFIBER

A synthetic fiber that is part of the NYLON (POLYAMIDE) family.  Aramid is short for Aromatic Polyamide.  META-ARAMIDS (NOMEX) exhibit very high heat resistance and PARA-ARAMIDS (KEVLAR) exhibit very high strength as well as high heat resistance.  Other brand names include TWARON, TECHNORA, and HERACRON.

References for this information:

Handbook of Nonwoven Filter Media, 2007, Pages 103-194 Inda

Categories: Fibers, Nonwovens
ATTENUATION

Drawing or pulling of molten polymer into a much-reduced diameter filament or fiber. This can add strength to the filament or fiber by making it less amorphous and more crystalline in structure.

References for this information:

https://www.edana.org/glossary

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
BALE

A compressed and bound package of fibers – a common shipping package for fibers.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
BATT, BATTING

A soft bulky assembly of fibers, usually carded. A carded web is sometimes referred to as a batt.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
BINDER

An adhesive substance, generally a high polymer in a solid form (powder, film, fiber) or as a foam, or in a liquid form (emulsion, dispersion, solution) used for bonding the constituent elements of a web or enhancing their adhesion, in order to provide the nonwoven fabric cohesion, integrity and/or strength and additional properties.

Categories: Additive, Fibers
BINDER FIBERS

Generally, thermoplastic fibers used as thermal bonding fibers in conjunction with other fibers with a higher softening point or non-melting fibers. Some binder fibers that may not be thermoplastic can be activated by solvent (e.g. water).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers
BONDING

Conversion of a fibrous web into a nonwoven by chemical (adhesive/solvent) means or by physical (mechanical or thermal) means. The bonding may be distributed all over (through or area bonding) or restricted to predetermined, discrete sites (point or print bonding).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Nonwovens
CALENDER

A machine used to bond fibers of a web or sheets of fabric or film to each other or to create surface features on these sheets. It consists of two or more heavy cylinders that impart heat and pressure to the sheets that are drawn between them. The rollers can be mirror smooth, embossed with a pattern, or porous.

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Machinery
CARDING

A process for making fibrous webs in which the fibers are aligned essentially parallel to each other in the direction in which the machine produces the web (machine direction).

References for this information:

Inda Edana

Categories: Fibers, Miscellaneous
CELLULOSIC FIBERS

Made from plants that produce fibrous products based on polymers of the cellulose molecule. Cotton plants produce separate cellulose fibers, whereas wood pulp is made by mechanically and/or chemically separating wood fibers. Other sources of cellulose are fibers such as flax manila, ramie and jute. Rayon is made by dissolving wood pulp in a solution and extruding that solution through spinnerets into a chemical bath that regenerates the fibers.

References for this information:

Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology, 2009, Pages156-182

Categories: Fibers